On 30 November 1967 British troops were evacuated, leaving Aden and the rest of the FSA under NLF control. The , who had been the first British troops to arrive in Aden in 1839, were the last to leave — with the exception of a Royal Engineer detachment (10 Airfields Squadron left Aden on 13 December 1967).
Aden became the capital of the new which, in 1970, was renamed the . With the of and southern Yemen in 1990, Aden was no longer a national capital but remained the capital of which covered an area similar to that of the Aden Colony.
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In January 1967, there were mass riots between the NLF and their rival FLOSY supporters in the old Arab quarter of Aden town. This conflict continued until mid February, despite the intervention of British troops. During the period there were as many attacks on the British troops by both sides as against each other culminating in the destruction of an plane in the air with no survivors.
In 1964, Britain announced its intention to grant independence to the FSA in 1968, but that the British military would remain in Aden. The security situation deteriorated as NLF and FLOSY (Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen) vied for the upper hand.